Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Marketing Plan Phase III

Panera Bread would like to announce a new cyber-cafe available at all locations. This product has been upgraded to assist the growing desire for a full service Internet accessibility location. A plan consisting of four-phases has been developed to market the new product. Currently most locations provide free wireless Internet access to their customer base. Panera has the biggest free wireless network in the USA. During the peak hours of business the customers’ will have a limit amount of time to use the Internet; the time limit is 30-60 minutes (Absolute Astronomy, 2011). However with the upgrade the locations will not have to limit the number of computers or a time limit. Phase One – Upgrade the Internet accessibility at all Panera Bread locations †¢ Development of product – One in three households has never used a computer. 18% of American households do not own a computer or have Internet access (Absolute Astronomy, 2011). SWOTT – An analysis of the cyber-cafe will find the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and trends in the market. †¢ Market Research – Panera Bread will distribute a survey to the company’s customer base that will lead to a better understanding of the consumer’s needs for Internet accessibility. Phase Two – Marketing to Consumers †¢ Target Market – Consumers between the age of 18-50 †¢ Consumers – Consumers want to access the Internet for various reasons such as keeping in touch with family, friends, accessing research data, and more. Competitors – Knowing the possible competitors and what they will offer. Phase Three – Expectations of the New Cyber-cafe †¢ Attributes –A larger server and reasonably priced cycle – Expected product life cycle for the cyber-cafe will be approximately 10 years. The reaction expected from competitors will cause a high incentive to duplicate Panera’s new era of cyber-cafes. †¢ Strategy and Price – The basic strategy is to provide a need to the consumers of Pan era Bread. The services cost will be in a price range that everyone can afford. Phase Four – Launching the cyber-cafe * The new improved sever to handle the increase in volume * The product will be put into 10 different locations for testing the new service. With the company following the four-phase plan, the management has high expectations for the cyber-cafe’s success. Panera Bread does not expect the service to start declining for at least six years.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

The Factors That Contribute to the Restriction in Freedom...

CHAPTER 1 THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE RESTRICTION IN FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND INFORMATION IN MALAYSIA TOWARDS IUKLS LOCAL STUDENTS 1.1 Introduction Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers. (The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 19, 1948). Freedom of speech and information is the one of the rights to every people in the civilized nation. Freedom of speech and information can be describe as the freedom of each of the citizen to voice out their opinion in the appropriate way and gain the access to the useful information without any†¦show more content†¦Sociological: The un-expose to the information and knowledge has made the students unaware about the importance of the freedom of speech. Thus influence the interaction among them in their daily life. Duttons 2004 say: This publication argues for a fresh approach that moves beyond the limitations of the ‘information society concept that has been the most common way of signifying the broad, interconnected range of social and economic changes tied to ICTs. Rethinking access in the way proposed here opens a broader understanding of the term access in relation to ICTs than the traditional definition that referred primarily to physical access to ICT infrastructures, systems, and devices. It also widens the object of that access from information, as implied by the term ‘information society, to include people, services, and technologies. (p. 22) The restriction to the access of information has made the student unaware about the right to the freedom of speech and information. Thus, they will not make this as one of the topics of conversation in their daily life interactions. Legal: The restriction in term of laws and legislation for the freedom of speech and information among the students. All the treaties about human rights allow limitations on freedom of expression when national security is discussed. Again in almost all states where freedom of information is being

Monday, December 30, 2019

Their Eyes Were Watching God Quotes

Their Eyes Were Watching God is a novel by Zora Neale Hurston. Its the story of Janie Crawford, who returns home and tells the story of the last 20 years. Quotes From the Novel These sitters had been tongueless, earless, eyeless conveniences all day long. Mules and other brutes had occupied their skins. But now, the sun and the bossman were gone, so the skins felt powerful and human. They became lords of sounds and lesser things. They passed nations through their mouths. They sat in judgment.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 1Janie saw her life like a great tree in leaf with the things suffered, things enjoyed, things done and undone. Dawn and doom was in the branches.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 2You know, honey, us colored folks is branches without roots and that makes things come round in queer ways. You in particular. Ah was born back due in slavery so it wasnt for me to fulfill my dreams of whut a woman oughta be and to do.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 2Ah wanted to preach a great sermon about colored women sittin on high, but they wasnt no pulpit for me.- Zora Neale Hurston, Th eir Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 2Ah wants things sweet wid mah marriage lak when you sit under a pear tree and think. Ah.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 3Janie pulled back a long time because he did not represent sun-up and pollen and blooming trees, but he spoke for far horizon. He spoke for change and chance.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 4Thank yuh fuh yo compliments, but mah wife dont know nothin bout no speech- makin.. Ah never married her for nothin lak dat. Shes uh woman and her place is in de home.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 5Take for instance that new house of his. It had two stories with porches, with bannisters and such things. The rest of the town looked like servants quarters surrounding the big house. And different from everybody else in the town he put off moving in until it had been painted, in and out. And look at the way he painted it—a gloaty, sparkly white.- Zora Neale Hurston, Th eir Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 5Janie loved the conversation and sometimes she thought up good stories on the mule, but Joe had forbidden her to indulge. He didnt want her talking after such trashy people.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 6Somebody got to think for women and chillun and chickens and cows. I god, they sho dont think none theirselves.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 6Janie did what she had never done before, that is, thrust herself into the conversation.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 6When you pull down yo britches, you look lak de change uh life.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 7It was so crazy digging worms by lamp light and setting out for Lake Sabelia after midnight that she felt like a child breaking rules. Thats what made Janie like it.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 11He could be a bee to a blossom—a pear tree blossom in the spring. He se emed to be crushing scent out of the world with his footsteps. Crushing aromatic herbs with every step he took. Spices hung about him. He was a glance from God.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 11Before the week was over he had whipped Janie. Not because her behavior justified his jealousy, but it relieved that awful fear inside him. Being able to whip her reassured him in possession. No brutal beating at all. He just slapped her around a bit to show he was boss.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 17They huddled closer and stared at the door. They just didnt use another part of their bodies, and they didnt look at anything but the door. The time was past for asking the white folks what to look for through that door. Six eyes were questioning God.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 18Once upon uh time, Ah never spected nothin, Tea Cake, but bein dead from standin still and tryin tuh laugh. But you come long and made someth in outa me. So Ahm thankful fuh anything we come through together.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 18Janie held his head tightly to her breast and wept and thanked him wordlessly for giving her the chance for loving service. She had to hug him tight for soon he would be gone, and she had to tell him for the last time. Then the grief of outer darkness descended.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 19So Ahm back home agin and Ahm satisfied tuh be heah. Ah done been tuh de horizon and back and now Ah kin set heah in mah house and live by comparisons.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 20Here was peace. She pulled in her horizon like a great fish-net. Pulled it from around the waist of the world and draped it over her shoulder. So much of life in its meshes! She called in her soul to come and see.- Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, Ch. 20

Saturday, December 21, 2019

Film Review The Bad Sleep Well - 1173 Words

Film Review – The Bad Sleep Well September 6th, 1998, Akira Kurosawa died at the age of 88 due to cause of a stroke in his home in Tokyo. He was classified as one of cinemas truly important directors. Mr. Kurosawa came across filmmaking after failing as a painter. He was seen as a domineering perfectionist. Kurosawa was noticed by dozens of directors of many generations. He had a major influence on many of them. This film resembling Hamlet, both feature a hero on a quest for revenge. Kurosawa got the idea of this film from his nephew, Mike Y. Inoue. Inoue wanted to become a scriptwriter. Inoue ended up giving up all of his scripts to his uncle, for his use. Kurosawa gave suggestions to his nephew about the scripts. Inoue spent six months rewriting the scripts for his uncle. He had them named â€Å"Bad Men’s Prosperity†. After giving the scripts back to his uncle for a final time, Kurosawa and several others reworked and wrote the scripts even more. Thus making the final versions of these scripts. In doing so, Inoue was not given screen credits in the film â€Å"The Bad Sleep Well†. The Bad Sleep Well, shows an importance of an attack on the corrupt corporate culture of this time period. Acknowledging the similarities in the plot of this film and Hamlet, it is brought to the attention that true parallels don’t surface until the middle of the film. The Bad Sleep Well happens to be the Kurosawa Production Company’s first film made. It was released January 22, 1963. Kurosawa decided onShow MoreRelatedEssay on Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps1412 Words   |  6 PagesProject B: movie response Global Financial Ethics – FIN6620 The movie response that will be covered in this essay will be on the film â€Å"Wall Street Money Never Sleeps †. It was directed by Oliver Stone, released during 2010 and is the sequel to the 1987 film â€Å"Wall Street†. 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Friday, December 13, 2019

Night Creature Crescent Moon Chapter 26 Free Essays

I expected the usual slam bam without even a â€Å"thank you, ma’am,† sex that bordered on rough, a rocketing orgasm. Instead he slowed things down, and I was lost â€Å"Come.† He took my hand; he pulled me across the floor. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 26 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I followed obediently, drunk on the taste of his mouth, the scent of his skin. I figured we were headed for the couch and that was fine with me, yet when I hesitated halfway across the room, he turned, shaking his head. â€Å"Not tonight. Tonight we do this right.† We hadn’t been doing it right? Could have fooled me. His bed was made, which gave me a start He didn’t seem the kind of guy who bothered. Then again, from the military corners and the tight white sheets, maybe he couldn’t help himself. Just like I couldn’t help myself. Certainly I’d proved he wasn’t an evil soulless beast or the walking undead. But even if he had been, could I have resisted him? I wasn’t sure. He climbed onto the bed, never letting go of my hand. Did he think I’d run if he released me? I wouldn’t get far. Even as a man, he could catch me. Especially since I’d let him. The ripple of muscle across his abdomen was accented by the line of his pants. Not a centimeter of excess flesh lapped over the waistband. Reaching out, I traced my thumb along a ridge, and his skin fluttered beneath my touch. I wanted to taste him, feel life against my lips, push aside the button, the zipper, and lay claim to what was beneath. I wanted to make amends for doubting him, if not for the knife. What guy wouldn’t appreciate a blow job apology? His slacks were worn soft from years of use. The single button popped free with very little encouragement He watched me through slitted, lazy eyes, though the hardened length of his body revealed a coiled tension, the tangle of his hair hinted at a certain wildness. The rumble of his zipper as I tugged it down seemed to fill the room, electrify the air. He continued to watch me without a word or a movement, except to lift his hips just enough so I could slide the pants down. No underwear lay beneath, only skin. I wanted to learn every line and every curve. Since he didn’t appear to be going anywhere, I indulged myself. A light dusting of hair covered his legs, just enough to make them manly, not enough to nudge them toward beast. I trailed my fingernails through the curls, up the inside of his thighs, and he quivered. How far could I go before he lost control? My hands roved higher, thumbs skating over the curve where his leg became his hip. He arched, begging me to touch him. I couldn’t deny a need I felt so deeply myself. I lowered my head, and my hair spilled over his chest, hiding me from view as I hovered, my breath brushing his pelvis, making him think, Yes, maybe, now, before I pressed my mouth to his belly, let my tongue circle his navel, then trace a moist path downward. My breasts cradled his erection. His pulse beat in time with mine. He slid through my cleavage, such that it was, simulating the intimate act. I lowered my head and licked him just once. His body leaped in response. Eyes closed, he moved against me, and I lost myself watching his face. The man enjoyed sex. With him, I enjoyed it, too. Not that I hadn’t before, but when love is involved the act is more about mind than body, heart than hands, lips, and tongue. There was something to be said about sex for the sake of sex. My nipples tightened, hardening as they brushed his upper thighs. The rhythmic strokes sent a bolt of heat through me. I wanted to lift my body over his, take him deep within. I wanted to ride him until we were both mindless and begging. But not yet. I inched downward and he let me go, hands sliding over my shoulders, up my neck, across my face. His fingers tangled in my hair as I took him in my mouth. He caressed my scalp with languid strokes, guiding, encouraging, urging me on. He lasted a good long while. His control was downright impressive. It became a battle of wills; who would surrender first, him or me? I didn’t plan to lose. I wouldn’t My tongue did things I’d only imagined. I used my teeth where I’d never used them before. Still he didn’t come, didn’t speak, didn’t move anything but his fingers through my hair. I grasped him at the hilt, ran my thumb down his length, followed with my tongue, scraped him with my teeth, and his hand finally tightened. His face was set, his eyes brighter, lighter than I remembered. As I held his gaze, I licked him, once, twice, three times, swirling softly, then taking him all and suckling hard. He swelled and grew, so close to erupting. Frantic, I rode him with my mouth, drawing him to the back of my throat, then nearly setting him free. â€Å"No,† he murmured, the rumble of his voice making my lips tingle, my ears buzz. â€Å"Please.† I lifted my head and he groaned. I blew on the chilly dampness left by my tongue, and his eyes fluttered closed. â€Å"Please what?† I closed my teeth over his tip, scored the skin just a little. His eyes shot open. I expected something gruff, perhaps crude. But had anything ever been as I expected with him? â€Å"Take me inside, cher. I want to feel your body all around me.† I frowned at the request, too personal, too revealing. I was tempted to finish him off despite any protest. He was too close; a few more strokes, and he’d be able to do nothing but come. Though oral sex could be more intimate than anything else, right now it wasn’t. There was a distance between us, a distance I wanted to keep. Why was he trying to breach it? His hand still tangled in my hair, his thumb stroked my cheek. My eyes burned, and my chest ached. This was so not a good idea. In spite of that, I was captured by his gaze, compelled by his voice, murmuring words in French that I didn’t understand. I did as he wanted, because I wanted it, too, surrounding him, taking him in. We moved together as if we’d done this a thousand times. The advance, the retreat, so new and yet so familiar, first filling me up, men nearly leaving me alone. The latter made me clutch him tight, hold him close, grasp him in the depths of myself, and consider never letting him go. â€Å"Look at me,† he ordered. I didn’t want to. If I didn’t see his face, he wasn’t a man, or a beast, he was a ride, albeit a damn good one. Disgusted with my thoughts, I again did as he asked, meeting his gaze, seeing myself. Who was that woman? Could she be me? â€Å"You don’t think of him when I’m inside you.† I said nothing, not even when he arched his back and touched me more deeply than ever before. â€Å"Say it,† he whispered. â€Å"Say it, or I won’t make you come.† Even if I could have spoken, I didn’t know what he wanted. He stopped moving – a little too late. The release began so small, so far away and yet so large, so near, I wasn’t sure if the spasms were him at first or me. Didn’t matter, because both of us were rocking together, coming apart. I collapsed on his chest; he ran his hand up my back. The world returned, and he was still inside me. I was draped all over him. Uncertain, almost childlike, he began to play with the fleur-de-lis chain at my waist. â€Å"What did you want me to say?† I asked. â€Å"My name. That’s all.† I lifted my head, shifted my body, but kept our legs tangled together. â€Å"Why?† â€Å"You said ‘Simon’ de last time you were in my bed.† I flinched at the sound of my husband’s name while my body still tingled from another man. I didn’t want to talk about Simon. Not now, not ever, and definitely not here and not with him. â€Å"I was asleep,† I snapped. â€Å"It isn’t as if I called you Simon while you were doing me.† This time be flinched, and I got worried. Was he expecting more than I could ever give? He didn’t seem the type. Then again, what type was he? â€Å"I’m sorry, Adam.† I rolled onto my back so we were no longer touching. â€Å"I wouldn’t like it if you said another woman’s name, either. Even though†¦Ã¢â‚¬  I paused, uncertain what to say. â€Å"Even though there’s nothing between us but tins?† he finished. I turned my head; our noses nearly brushed. â€Å"Yes.† For just an instant I wondered if it could be more. If I could love another man the way I’d loved Simon. If I could love this man. â€Å"I wish I could love you,† he whispered. Was he reading my thoughts? Mirroring them? And speaking of mirrors†¦ â€Å"You don’t have any,† I blurted. Confusion flickered over his face. â€Å"Love?† â€Å"Mirrors.† The confusion fled, replaced by wariness, just before the stoic mask returned. He’d shut me out as if he had something to hide. â€Å"I don’t like mirrors, cher.† â€Å"Because †¦?† He sat up, presented me with his back. â€Å"What you want me to say? That I can’t see my reflection? Or that I don’t want to?† I sat up, too, but turned toward him. Something was going on here; I just couldn’t figure out what â€Å"There are things I’ve done,† he said softly. â€Å"Things you couldn’t imagine.† Was he talking about the army? Or something else? â€Å"What did you do?† He stood, muscles rippling in his back, his legs, his arms. â€Å"More than I can ever say.† â€Å"I meant, what was your job in the army? Detective Sullivan couldn’t access your file.† â€Å"My life then is dead. I’m here now, and I’ll never be free.† He spun around, putting his hands on the bed, leaning over me, crowding into my space. â€Å"I’m not de man for you.† â€Å"I know.† â€Å"I can’t love you.† â€Å"I can’t love you.† â€Å"Don’t ask me to.† â€Å"I didn’t.† My voice was clipped, my back tense to the point of aching. â€Å"Just so we’re clear.† â€Å"Crystal.† His lips twitched. â€Å"What you so mad about, cher? I’m just gettin’ things out in de open. No hard feelings later that way.† â€Å"Fine with me,† I said, but my back was stiffer than a scrub brush bristle. He sank onto the bed, rubbed a big hand over my shoulders. â€Å"Shh,† he whispered, pulling me into his arms. â€Å"We both want de same thing. While you’re here, we’ll be together. When you go, we won’t be.† â€Å"OK.† â€Å"Because you will go.† â€Å"Yes.† Especially since he hadn’t asked me to stay. How to cite Night Creature: Crescent Moon Chapter 26, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Introducing English Medieval Book History -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Introducing English Medieval Book History? Answer: Introducation Brand equity, mass marketing, market share, logo design, margins, customers acknowledgement, visual aspects, brand awareness, brand association, brand commitment. Brand identity, consumers, brand image, company, individual, brand vision, brand culture, relationships, discussions, marketplace. Brand image, brand name, companys image, motto, marketing, public relations, branded items, design, customers state of mind, essence Brand positioning, advantages, positioning technique, competitive diversity, brand information, powerful action, brand technique, resemblance, brand worth, unique. Zara is one of my favourite brand and it is one of the biggest company in the fashion industry. The intangible value of Zaras brand equity is defined by Aaker model. These model incorporates the different elements such as brand awareness, perceived quality, brand loyalty, brand association as well as other brand association. The vision of the company is to become a leader in the textile industry. The brand equity measurement will be proposed in such a way that it will incorporate Aaker model to measure the different tangible aspects of the brand. The brand equity measurement system will focus on certain key features that will affect Zara within the fashion industry. The basis of the brand equity measurement is that it is suitable for the performance of the company that is operating within the fashion industry. Zara is one of the leading fashion brand and as a result it has the highest brand awareness among the consumers. This measure also positively increases the brand equity of the company. Zaras design approach to design is linked to the customers. Usage based positioning strategies is used by Zara and thus it highlights the customer centric approach to satisfy the needs of the customers. According to the report of Guardian, the market share of Zara is 1.5% in the UK market. The highly responsive and unique supply chain makes Zara at the forefront in the fashion industry. The company has made stringent commitment towards Global standards of quality and thus it is growing over the last decade. The technical perfection, innovative impacts and the quality standards of the company is unique. Zara is trying to improve in the provision of products and services to the customers by enhancing customer satisfaction and on time delivery of the products. Therefore, it can be said that company will able to meet the needs of the consumers and it must take sustainable initiatives that are targeted towards the customers. Match these words with the meanings below: Launch d. The introduction of a product to the market Lifecycle e. The introduction of a product to the market Range a. The set of products made by a company Placement c. When products are used in films or TV programs Endorsement b. The use of a well-known person to advertise products Business Vocabulary Building on Grammar in-context My summer holidays are often a little boring, but my summer holiday last year was great my family and I got onto an airplane and flew to Vancouver! It was our first time to visit Canada. We got up very early almost every day and did lots of really fun and interesting things. On our first day, we visited Stanley Park and the Vancouver Art Gallery. Later in the week, we visited some museums and then got on a special boat to watch whales. It was fantastic! I took lots of photos. Of course, we also visited our cousins who live in Vancouver. One evening, they had a barbeque and we ate at their home. After we finished, we invited them to come to our home one day. Unfortunately, we didnt swim in the ocean because the water was too cold, but we did do many other fun things. Finally, after two weeks, before we left Vancouver, my family and I went shopping and bought lots of souvenirs to help us remember our time in Canada. Maybe we can travel again during my next summer holiday. Maybe we can plan to visit Japan or Brazil! Reading Comprehension The article is about the holiday of a family in Vancouver. The person has travelled with his family. False He took photos of the whales in the boat. The word their refers to the relatives of the person. One evening, they visited their relatives home and enjoyed the barbeque party. He described the shopping as a souvenir. True Narrative Writing Travelling has given me many memories and experiences which I can always cherish and look back. For people like me, travelling will bring back equilibrium when life at home becomes too hectic and stressful. It can be said that travelling with the right people and partner will help me to gather better experiences and make my holiday better. My most memorable experience was my trip to Paris in August 2017. It was one of the unforgettable experience that I had spent with my family in one of my recent trip. We had spent a great time together and it was my sisters first visit to European country. The food, sights and the quality time we spent will always remain special and memorable to us. I was anxious and confused and I approached people who passed by. I have enjoyed to the fullest in this trip and also saw many beautiful spots and tourist places in Paris. I saw the famous Eiffel Tower and the famous museum i.e. Musee de Lovre which is one of the largest museum in the world. I also spent an entire day in exploring more than 35,000 treasures that includes the renowned painting of Mona Lisa and the statue of Venus de Milo. I was fascinated when I saw the Palais Garnier, that is in the Opera house of Paris. I parked my car in the small roadway behind the Opera House. When I reached the main road, I found an underground station that displayed the word Metropolitan. I did not notice the name of the street and I considered that the stations name that was nearby would be adequate for me to park my car. After visiting the Opera House, we walked back to find our car. It was difficult for me to locate the Metropolitan sign and realized that it was difficult to find out the correct street. I realized my mistake and understood that the Metropolitan sign was available in all stations in Paris. I wondered how I would get my car back. It was thus a miracle and thus I managed to find my car, References Coleman, J., 2015. 15.09. 23, Hanna, Introducing English Medieval Book History.The Medieval Review. Williams, S., 2014. Oxford learner's dictionary of academic English [Book Review].English Australia Journal,30(1), p.94

Thursday, November 28, 2019

A Marxist Approach to Global Crime

A Marxist Approach to Global Crime Introduction Global crime is one of the most important problems facing the world and most governments have taken steps to deal with it. These form of crime results in enormous costs to the society and the economy. An understanding of the causes of global crime can be helpful in mitigating this detrimental practice.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on A Marxist Approach to Global Crime specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Criminologists have made use of many theories and approaches to explain crime and propose ways of reducing crime. One such approach, which can be used to provide a better understanding of global crime, is the Marxist approach. This approach emphasizes socio-political as well as economic factors in explaining crime. This paper will apply the Marxist view on crime to global crime and proceed to discuss what this reveals about power, deviance, and social control. Overview of Global Crime Global crimes occur acr oss multiple national borders and organized criminal groups are the main participants in this transnational crime. Crimes that fall under the global crime category include drug trafficking, people smuggling, arms dealing, prostitution rings, and money laundering to name but a few. Global crime is economically driven and most participants seek to make the greatest amount of profit from their criminal activities. Marxists Approach to Global Crime The Marxist approach is derived from the theories of Karl Marx who is best known for his critique of the capitalist system. Marx asserted that the social institutions such as law, politics, and education, in a capitalist society â€Å"legitimize existing class inequalities and maintain the superior position held by the upper classes† (Kendall 2012, p. 175). Capitalism produces haves and have-nots and encourages people to engage in crime and different forms of deviance. While crime was not a central feature of Marxs theory of society, m any academics and researchers have been able to use Marxist theories in the analyses of crime.Advertising Looking for essay on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In addition to this, Marx did investigate the issues of crime, which makes his approach applicable to issues of crime. The Marxist approach to global crime is based on conflict with class power being of core importance. The relationship between the classes is one of conflict since it is based on the political domination of the labour providing class by the capital owning class. Global crime is encouraged by the capitalistic system that promotes individual achievements at the expense of other members of the society. The capitalistic economic system fosters most of the global crimes by encouraging the exploitation of one group by another and promoting the self-interest of the individuals who engage in these forms of crime. This thought is corroborate d by McGuire and McQuarie (1994) who argue, The competitive nature of capitalist society promotes social conditions that generate individualism and self-interest (p. 261). For example, Corruption of public officials is a necessary component of many global crimes. The Marxist approach suggests that these public officials are corruptible due to the capitalistic mindset that puts individual prosperity ahead of the society good (Zastrow 2009). The Marxist approach focuses on crime as the product of law-enforcement policies (McGuire McQuarie 1994). Law-enforcement policies are responsible for labelling certain global activities as crimes. While society has grown to think of crime as a well-defined phenomenon and have a stereotyped view about who the criminals are, the fact is that criminal offences and crime is not well defined and criminals are diverse. In most cases, global crime seeks to provide people with desired goods and services that cannot be obtained through legal means. Such products include; drugs, fake visas, and weapons to name but a few. In some cases, the ruling class encourages global crime since it provides goods and services which ease the hardships and deflect the energies of the underclass (Spitzer 1975, p. 508). The Marxist approach further notes that there is selective enforcement of laws with regard to global crime.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on A Marxist Approach to Global Crime specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More While the law deals with people smuggling and drug smuggling by small criminal groups harshly, the same activity by powerful crime groups goes on unabated. International arms smuggling done by powerful actors is largely ignored by the police and the courts. The Marxist approach proposes that crime is inevitable since capitalism, which is based on exploitation, causes crime. The approach suggests that crime is the only way through which the poor working class can m ake a living and therefore ensure their survival. This assertion holds true for global crimes that are mostly motivated by economic considerations. People smuggling can trace its origin to the desperation of individuals in developing nations. From this desperation, they are forced to engage the services of people smugglers who take them to countries where they can have better economic prospects. Most participants of global crime come from poor backgrounds and they are incentivised to participate in these crimes in order to afford the luxuries that the capitalistic society promises. Implications of the Marxist Approach to: Power The Marxist approach argues that criminal law protects the interests of the rich and powerful often at the expense of the poor. Those with power are able to use their resources to avoid criminal prosecution and even having their activities labelled as crimes (McGuire McQuarie 1994). In addition to this, the ruling class is in a position to prevent the impl ementation of laws that threaten their self-interest. Kendall (2012) observes how the capitalistic state avoids introducing laws that regulate business activity or impose huge penalties on large corporations. Corporate crimes are the most serious anti-social acts and they affect millions of people worldwide.Advertising Looking for essay on criminology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, little attention is given to this predatory act and the government is more interested in curbing crimes such as drug trafficking and smuggling; crimes which cost significantly less in terms of money and lives than corporate crime. The Marxist approach points out that the affluent and powerful are able to protect their own interests and shield them from prosecution even when they commit crimes. Jewkes (2004) observes that those in power manipulate the media agenda to harness support for policies that criminalize those with less power in society. The media is able to manipulate reporting to create an impression that the interests of the ruling class are the same as those of the whole nation and violating the ruling class interests poses a threat to the whole nations well being. With regard to global crime, the media mostly ignores crimes done by the rich and powerful with corporate wrongs seldom being reported. The media either ignores the crimes of the powerful or misreprese nts them and consequently, news reporting remains attached to state definitions of crime and criminal law (Jewkes 2004). On the other hand, crimes perpetrated by less powerful actors are given a lot of media attention. This reflects a pervasive bias in the labelling of criminals. The ruling class decides on which activities should be criminalized and the sanctions that to be imposed on the offenders. This criminalization is not uniform and it is done for the convenience of the ruling class. The selective criminalization is best elaborated by the 18th century trade between China and European states. The main product offered by the West to China was opium and when China banned the sale of opium in her territory, Britain retaliated by attacking China and forcing her to open up her ports for trade (Bickers 2011). The European ruling class was able to impose its will due to its economic and political might. Today, the international trade in opium is criminalized by all Western powers sin ce such trade is not in their best interest. The political and economical powers of the country set the agenda for public debate on crime and the implementation of criminal justice. These agendas shape public perceptions of crime and justice. Kendall (2012) suggests that the picture of crime painted by the ruling class is manipulated so that the crimes of the working class and unemployed are over-concentrated on. On the other hand, crimes of the well-educated upper and middle classes are all but ignored. Deviance The Marxist approach views deviance as a function of the capitalist economic system. Deviance according to the Marxist approach is created by social control agencies such as the police and the criminal justice system, which label people as outside the typical law-abiding community. Becker (1963) illustrates that specific behaviour is not in itself deviant or normal and it only becomes so when people start applying labels to it. The individuals who label behaviour as norma l or criminal are therefore responsible for creating the deviance class. Hester (1992) elaborates that the ruling class has economic dominion and from this base, the class erects the legal and political superstructure. Through these institutions, the ruling class imposes its values, ideas, and beliefs that comprise the social consciousness. Deviants are therefore created by the upper class since its economic and political power enables it to make its views heard and enforced. Attributing the label of deviant to an individual or a group makes them outsiders. This increases the level of crime since the label of criminal might last for a lifetime. Once a person is identified as a member of an international smuggling group, his/her chances of engaging in this activity are increased (Zastrow 2009). This phenomenon is explained by the labelling theory, which illustrates that the deviance label makes it likely that a person will join the deviant group or subculture that society assumes he belongs to and consequently engage in further deviant acts. Social Control The ruling class is able to promote a stable society by encouraging conformity and adherence to societal values (Merton 1938). The Marxist approach emphasizes that the alleged societal values are not a reflection of a shared value system but rather the imposition of the ruling class on the rest of the society. While laws purport to be a reflection of value consensus, they are in actual sense an expression of ruling-class ideology imposed on the working class. These laws primarily protect the interests of the ruling class therefore enabling it to keep its power and influence over the lower classes. The Marxist approach declares that criminal sanctions are put in place to protect the property owners and ensure that their ability to generate wealth in future is guaranteed. McGuire and McQuarie (1994) note that the law and the administration of justice views global crime as a serious offence since it threatens those that possess the property. International drug trafficking increases the levels of crime in the cities as drug addicts engage in robbery to finance their addiction or fail to engage in meaningful economic activity since due to the effects of the drugs. Smuggling of counterfeit goods across borders denies rich corporate of their market dominance and therefore decreases their profits. The media is the most potent tool used by the upper class and the socially privileged to exert social control. The media constructs global crime and violence in such a way that it encourages populations to accept increasingly repressive forms of social control all in the name of dealing with global crime (Jewkes 2004). While all classes of the society engage in crime, the types of crime differ and the media predisposes society to focus on the crimes of the lower classes since the higher classes are the ones who control the media apparatus. Conclusion This paper set out to apply the Marxist approach to global crime. It began by documenting that the Marxist approach blames economic factors and social structures for criminal activity. The paper has discussed systematic class bias in the criminal justice system and how power and inequality affect criminal labelling processes. This approach has explained the relationship between crime and the socioeconomic realities of individuals and given insights into labelling. By using the approach, it is clear that capitalism is the root of crime. As such, global crime can only be eradicated by replacing capitalism with an egalitarian society, which does not divide people into classes. Until this is done, the world will continue to be plagued by global crime and the harmful effects it causes in society. References Becker, H 1963, Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance, Free Press, New York. Bickers, R 2011, ‘Chinas Age of Fragility’, History Today, vol. 61 no. 3, pp. 29-36. Hester, S 1992, A Sociology of Crime, Routledge , Sydney. Jewkes, Y 2004, Media and Crime, Sage, New Jersey. Kendall, D 2012, Sociology in Our Times, Cengage Learning, NY. McGuire, P McQuarie, D 1994, From the Left Bank to the Mainstream: Historical Debates and Contemporary Research in Marxist Sociology, Rowman Littlefield, London. Merton, RK 1938, ‘Social Structure and Anomie’, American Sociological Review, vol. 3 no. 1, pp. 672-682. Spitzer, S 1975, ‘Towards a Marxian Theory of Deviance’, Social Problems, vol. 22 no. 5, pp. 495-512. Zastrow, C 2009, Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People, Cengage Learning, NY.